Routledge and Kegan Paul, pp. And most recently, increasing examples can be seen of religions which being transmitted without reliance on any specific individuals engaged in missionary activities.
One approach is to understand globalisation as the result of the economic, military and technological hegemony of the West, and accordingly equate globalisation with westernisation Therborn They attempt to grasp ultimate truth, to provide a totalizing, all-encompassing explanation of the universe and its origins, the beginning and end of time, its cycle, the essence of nature and humankind, or the meaning of life.
A second but related focus of observation is the role that religious systems play as powerful cultural resources for asserting identity and seeking inclusion in global society, especially among less powerful and marginalized populations.
This has always been one of the attractions of both Christianity and Islam; they have in effect been global religions for many centuries. Like global capitalism or international relations, this question is not susceptible to easy understanding on the basis of theories that take a more limited territory, above all a nation-state or a region like Europe, as their primary unit of analysis.
That is to say, in Religious rejections of globalization globalised world that entails increasing levels of contact and proximity between a diversity of religions, hence the growing awareness of this diversity, religion is likely to play a significant role in the construction of identities, in social conflicts and in political issues.
In short, criminal activity is another object of globalization.
New Delhi Analysis A consensus has existed for decades among the main political forces of the US and Europe revolving around the idea that economic openness is positive.
In this context, the church symbolizes the authority of the religion; the doctrines are based on traditions Religious rejections of globalization churches have maintained, while priests, monks, and ministers have attempted to interpret religious information to the believers. Beckford notes that the sociology of religion tends to focus on fundamentalism, and neglects the study of less spectacular responses to globalisation.
Religion and the Powers of the Common Life. This concept, argues Levitt, allows us to capture the ways in which beliefs and practices are transformed, in both host country and sending-country communities by ways of communication and travel, and therefore to understand globalised everyday religious life at the local level.
Every religion has a literal level where all the beliefs and practices are specific to that faith. Pluralist visions of the world are variations on the unitary ones, putting greater stress on, respectively, the difference or the irreconcilability of diverse worldviews.
Because religions address the world order and the meaning of life, they prove to be extremely responsive to globalisation. Far more numerous are those that share ideals such as equality and inclusion of all people in the benefits of global society, perhaps under the rubric of universal human rights ; but they consider that at the very least human society has a long way to go before these are realizable, and that certain features of globalization actually stand in the way of their realization.
The Globalization of Religion Next, I want to discuss various religious transformations in the information age from the viewpoint of globalization. Indeed, teachers —workers— and students in state education comprise another interest group that is becoming more and more resistant to globalisation.
A collection of theoretical and empirical articles about globalization and the possible place of religion in it. A collection of articles, mostly about each of the major world religions, with overview articles attached.
It is possible, however, that limiting the problem to economic decline, inequality and xenophobia is overly reductionist. Associated with family ties and ancestral bonds, gifts carry sentiments, messages and intention; therefore they involve dangerous obligations of reciprocality, or may provoke the spirit of envy and jealousy.
For this approach to religion and globalization, the construction of the religious system is not only recent. The thus far classic statement of a highly influential and dialogical theory of globalization by the sociologist who first used the term technically and consistently in the s.
Regardless of the difficulties involved in making specific predictions regarding the direction of coming change, cultural globalization will share certain characteristics of other globalization processes, namely the weakening or disappearance of borders between nations, societies, and ethnic groups, and simultaneous unfolding of events on a global scale.
However, there might be good reasons to view religion as an essential component of the making of the contemporary global situation. Robertson reminds us that since their emergence, the social sciences have adopted a methodological nationalism, considering the nation-state as the natural container of human life.
Religious leaders interested in maintaining a vibrant flock would do well to adapt their message to this snowballing trend of globalization, which they cannot fight. When this vision of globalization is applied to religion, we can suggest that we will see steady change from the conventional form of religion linked intimately to the histories and cultures of respective nations and ethnic groups.
It is not so much a case of protecting against the effects of globalisation as empowering citizens, enabling them to get the most out of it to the fullest extent possible.
By contrast, Pentecostalism emphasise the dangers of gifts. How precisely do religious diasporas combine local adaptation and transnationality?
Social Theory and Global Culture, London: For example, Japanese new religions frequently gain foreign members by the informal efforts of Japanese lay members who are sent to work at companies or factories in other Asian countries. Finally, it is necessary to give a better explanation of the limitations faced by the welfare state and the reforms it needs in order to be sustainable, and to open new public forums and channels enabling citizens to feel more and better represented.
It is precisely through de- territorialisation that, for Appadurai, these flows find their paths, albeit in a fragmented and disjointed way. Religion, Globalization, and the Human Condition More than a few theories of globalization explicitly address what one might call its ideal dimension, the way it shapes how people understand the nature and purpose of the world and their place in it.
Colonialism and Comparative Religion in Southern Africa. Thus, for example, Christians, Buddhists, Muslims, Jews, and those speaking from indigenous traditions all arrive at similar critical assessments of globalization.
The "user-oriented religious market," on the other hand, refers to a situation in which each individual, in response to his or her personal values and sensibilities, considers, selects, and tries out those elements which he finds most attractive and suitable from the mass of competing religions.
Transnational Religion and Fading States.Religion and Globalization (Introduction) a theme suggested by McAlister‘s agenda for the understanding of ‗Globalization and the Religious Production of Space‘3.
Furthermore, what becomes fundamental with globalisation is what is happening between locations, such as ―centres‖ and ―peripheries‖; in other words movement. The Information Age and the Globalization of Religion. In the process of religious globalization, a "user-oriented religious market" will emerge in addition to the conventional "producer-oriented system," and the very distinction between "leader" and "follower" will likely become increasingly ambiguous.
Globalization has therefore had the paradoxical effect of making religions (via their religious leaders and clites) more self-conscious of themselves as being ‘world religions. 57 Religious Rejections of Globalization.
Frank J. Lechner [ ] Religion and Antiglobalization Activism: The Case of the Debt Movement. On November 6,President Bill Clinton signed a foreign aid bill fully funding debt relief for poor countries. This chapter’s approach to religion and globalization starts with an understanding of how the exercise of authority varies in religious contexts and with a ﬁrm grasp of the interplay of the erudite and institutional, and the popular, in religious life.
Even the religious opposition to globalization is nuanced. Some violent activists, like Hindu extremists in India, want a new religious state. Others, like Christian militias or al Qaeda, envision a transnational religious entity — a kind of religious globalization to supplant the secular one.Download